Chronogram of sessions
Session 1 Tuesday, January 5: Introduction to Latin America and its
• Introduction I: Latin America, geography, society and cultural
• Introduction II: Prehistory, Colonial and Republican periods. The
material evidence. The historical imprint on today’s Latin America.
• Heritage and society. Violence and conflict in Latin American and
Session 2 Tuesday, January 12: Defining heritage.
• What is heritage? An artificial concept. A social construction.
• The past in the present. Policies and promotion of heritage
• History of Conservation: Legal, civic aspects.
• Evolution of UNESCO instruments and international treaties.
• The concept of "market" culture.
• Conclusion: our prospects. Ideas, projects and media on LA heritage.
Ready, Richard C. y Ståle Navrud
2002 Why Value Cultural Heritage? En Valuing Cultural Heritage. Applying
Environmental Valuation Techniques to Historic Buildings, Monuments and
Artifacts. Ståle Navrud and Richard C. Ready, eds. Edward Elgar
(You can download the document from http://www.nba.fi/tiedostot/f6033fd6.pdf)
Watkins, Joe E. y John Beaver
2008 What do we mean by heritage? Whose heritage do we manage, and what
rights have we to do so? En Heritage Management 1/1: 9-36.
Session 3 Tuesday, January 19: Strategy of Cultural Heritage Management
• Definition of cultural heritage management.
• Evolution of ideas and practices in heritage conservation.
• What's new in the management strategy?
• Management and political processes at community level, regional and
• Selection of topics for papers.
2000 Cultural Heritage and Globalization. En Values and Heritage
Conservation. Research Report: 32-37. The Getty Conservation Institute,
Pearce, Susan M.
2000 The Making of Cultural Heritage. En Values and Heritage
Conservation. Research Report: 59-64. The Getty Conservation Institute,
2000 Conclusions of the document.
(You can download the document from
Session 4 Tuesday, January 26: Heritage in Latin America.
• Evolution of the concept of heritage. Back to history and the
formation of Latin American nations
• Nation-building, identity and heritage.
• Politics in heritage. What part of the heritage? What portion of
history? Selection and omission of heritage.
de la Torre, Marta
2002 Assessing the Values of Cultural Heritage:
Research Report. Los Angeles: The Getty Conservation Institute.
This is the complete document. You should
read: Assessing Values in Conservation Planning: Methodological Issues
and Choices, Randall Mason, pp.5-30. And browse: Economic Valuation of
Cultural Heritage: Evidence and Prospects, Mourato and Mazzanti,
Session 5 Tuesday, February 2: Three Pillars in CHM. Research.
Conservation. Consensus and advocacy.
• Evolution of research: excavation, documentation and interpretation.
• Evolution of technologies in preservation, in promotion, technology in
• Conservation evolution: historical stage: museums as repositories,
sites rebuilt. Contemporary stage: changing roles of actors (museums,
public libraries, private collections).
• Handing out questions for mid-term essay.
Scarpaci,Joseph L. 2004. The historical geography of the Spanish
American Centro Histórico. In Plazas and Barrios : Heritage Tourism and
Globalization in the Latin American Centro Histórico, pp. 38-96.
University of Arizona Press.
Scarpaci,Joseph L. 2004. The social construction of Latin American
historic districts. In Plazas and Barrios : Heritage Tourism and
Globalization in the Latin American Centro Histórico, pp. 120-147.
University of Arizona Press.
Session 6 Tuesday, February 9: Our projects.
• How to focus on our topics. Outline for our papers.
• Essential issues in evaluating heritage.
• Preparation of “working” teams. Topics in the various fields of
• Our goals? Quality Standards "? Methodologies are preset?
• Discussion of the document for the preparation of the project and its
Definition of the outlines of the projects.
• Evaluation of the project terms with the SWOT analysis: strengths,
weaknesses, opportunities and threats in the study.
• Philosophy and objectives. Beneficiaries.
• Participants of the team and work sequence.
• Expected results and impact of the project.
• Mid-term essay due.
Benavides, O. Hugo
2008 Archaeology, Globalization and the Nation: Appropriating the Past
in Ecuador. In Handbook of South American Archaeology, Helaine Silverman
and William H. Isbell eds., pp. 1063-1072. New York, Springer.
2008 The Bennett Monolith: Archaeological Patrimony and Cultural
Restitution in Bolivia. In Handbook of South American Archaeology,
Helaine Silverman and William H. Isbell eds., pp. 1089-1102. New York,
February 15-26 Olympic Games break; classes cancelled
Session 7 Tuesday, March 2: Case studies I. LA and the WHC list. The
other monuments of LA’s cultural heritage.
• Creating spaces and territorial levels: the concept of cultural
• Quality standards and accreditation of museums and cultural centers.
• Cultural Marketing.
• Project Financing.
• Environmental impact assessments ... cultural impact assessments?
Session 8 Tuesday, March 9: Guests into the Arena of Heritage
• Tourism, Globalization, Sustainability and Heritage.
• Economic trends over the last decade and the relation to heritage.
• Heritage Trust as well and its relationship to the market concept.
• Real and Virtual Spaces. Museums and spaces for education and
2008 Cultural Heritage Management in Peru: Current and Future
Challenges. In Handbook of South American Archaeology, Helaine Silverman
and William H. Isbell eds., pp. 1073-1088. New York, Springer.
2008 Modernity and Politics in Colombian Archaeology. In Handbook of
South American Archaeology, Helaine Silverman and William H. Isbell
eds., pp. 1103-1114. New York, Springer.
Session 9 Tuesday, March 16. Case studies II. Master Plans.
The case studies will combine the reading of the progress reports, the
UNESCO reports on the management status of the sites (e.g.
http://whc.unesco.org/en/list/274/documents/) and proposals for the
management of the sites (by government or non-governmental agencies).
Case study 1: Machu Picchu and the Urubamba Valley (Peru).
Case study 2: The Copan Valley (Honduras).
Case study 3: Monte Alban and the Oaxaca region (Mexico).
Case study 4: Habana Vieja (Cuba).
Case study 5: Cartagena de Indias (Colombia).
Session 10 Tuesday, March 23: Presentations & debate on issues raised by
Session 11 Tuesday, March 30: Presentations & debate on issues raised by
Session 12 Tuesday, April 6:
In the second part of the session, Rudy Reimer will be
sharing with us his experience in the management of cultural resources
in BC. You will download his article:
First Nations, Forestry, and the Transformation of Archaeological
Practice in British Columbia, Canada. Michael A. Klassen, Rick Budhwa,
Rudy Reimer/Yumks. Heritage Management Volume 2, Number 2 / Fall 2009.
Session 13 Tuesday, April 13: Local and International Perspective.
• Regional Programs Partnership. Andean Programs and the Andean
• Andean Pact, OAS... political institutions addressing cultural issues.
• Comparison: Programs in the Mediterranean, multicultural, EUROMED.
• Promoting regional and local developments. An analysis of the legal
situation governing institutions against the estate.
• Papers due.
Session 14 Tuesday, April 20: Final exam.
This course surveys the panorama in cultural heritage management in the
Latin American region. The perspective of this course will be quite
broad as we try to define what constitutes cultural heritage in the
region in comparison and referring to other world cases. Our definition
of cultural heritage will be based on a very strong idea of social
acceptance of the material features that become cultural heritage,
regardless of their antiquity. We will consider heritage as an important
ingredient in the making of a social construction, where the creation of
art and preservation of heritage is not necessarily subject to strict
market rules but serves other purposes, such supporting a social
construction, political network, nation building, or simply serving for
the preservation of the art of the humanity, art from all over the world
that has reached a status beyond any appraisable value and beyond
This course examines the theme of Cultural Heritage Management and
multidisciplinary approach to the creation of projects dedicated to
cultural heritage, both tangible assets, movable and immovable type, one
consisting of artifacts and monuments, and intangible, consisting of
craft traditions , arts and rituals.
Then we will refine this definition with the comments of the students on
the issue, using their experience with the buildings and monuments of
cities in their surroundings. Once the concept of cultural heritage is
defined, we will turn to the complexity of the field of cultural
heritage management as it aims to conserve, preserve and promote the
heritage of a city or region.
At this stage we will review our case-studies through a lens of
economic, political and social influence the process of creating ideas
and then making decisions to institute a cultural policy, hence creating
cultural heritage. First, we will investigate the concepts and
procedures for creating new projects, to allocate resources and
investment in research, conservation, enhancement and promotion of
cultural heritage from a political perspective "from the top" (which
comes from governments, boards, directories...). Then, for comparative
and practical purposes, consider also the perspective "from below", a
forum many times more dynamic in the development of asset management,
which takes place at the level of communities or regions. The contrast
between the two parts is very important in both the benefits and
detriments of each perspective may be exclusionary in both practical and
The course will begin by addressing the issue of the economic, political
and social influence the process of creating ideas and then making
decisions to institute a cultural policy. First, investigate the
concepts and procedures for creating new projects, to allocate resources
and investment in research, conservation, enhancement and promotion of
cultural heritage from a political perspective "from the top" (which
comes from governments, boards, directories ...). Then, for comparative
purposes, consider also the perspective "from below", a forum many times
more dynamic in the development of asset management, which takes place
at the level of communities or regions. The contrast between the two is
very important in both the benefits and detriments of each perspective
may be exclusionary in both practical and theoretical aspect.
Three steps lead criteria for comparison, analysis and planning of cases
of cultural heritage management: experience, creativity and innovation.
To these three criteria further add two important criteria that guide
the three previous ones, which are the teaching and information. These
criteria, their level correspond to the effect of "efficiency and
utility, and ultimately sustainability, which will be planning projects
during the course.
Course Learning Objectives
1. Identify the key factors influencing the demand for visual and
performing arts as well as for the enjoyment of cultural heritage;
analyze the impact of changes in the dominant factors in consumption
demand and farm gear.
2. Identify the key factors that influence production of the visual and
performing arts, as well as places to display and preserve cultural
3. Consider management and legal decisions that influence the markets in
the preservation of art and cultural heritage. We will try to determine
why there is an exhibition or an offer to certain visual arts and other
non-sale; analyze management decisions to offer a repertoire of
performances in a season; analyze the social decision to spend resources
on preserving the heritage monuments.
4. Delineate the characteristics of markets for the visual and
performing arts, as well as the difficulties in observing a market for
cultural heritage, explaining the pricing and then leave the decision on
the visual and performance art markets, and determining the fee for
cultural heritage sites.
5. Take a conviction, an economic discussion Economically-based public
support for arts and culture, whether its manifestations are helpful,
nonprofit, or efforts funded.
Students enrolling this course should be interested in Latin American
issues, but not necessarily in anthropology and archaeology. The
dynamics of the class will improve with the participation of students
from sociology, economy or education programs, mostly because I foresee
treating the concept of Cultural Heritage as a very dynamic and
socially-based feature not restricted to the physical churches,
archaeological sites or other artifacts but the societies that house
them. In the same vein, student’s interest in different countries in
Latin America will be a plus for the course. While the contents of the
sessions might concentrate in cases drawn from the Andean region, in the
big picture we will pursue comparative means to assess the progress in
the field of cultural heritage of countries in regional groups (the
Andean countries) with other regions such as the Mediterranean.
The proposed formal requirements for the course will be:
(1) One take-home essay that will be commented in one class (at midterm)
(2) A short research paper (max. 10-12 pages without references) to be
completed for the penultimate class [factor .25].
(3) Sitting for a final set of essay questions, as a final exam. [factor
(4) Participation in the class discussions [factor .25]. Attendance is
important to fulfill this requirement.
The research paper
Students in this course will have to prepare a research paper (having a
maximum of 12 double-spaced pages, including up to two pages of
references consulted ... the ideal length for the 15 minute
presentation). The subject of the research paper will be defined within
the first five sessions of the course, referring to the personal
interests of students in certain academic subjects related to the study
of management of cultural heritage and the arts (i.e. a study of these
matters of a sociological, economic, educational, directive, or policy).
Namely accomplish the following steps:
1. Select a cultural resource or a cultural project (such as a theater,
a museum or an archaeological site, organizing a festival, creating a
museum, an archaeological park, or a gallery);
2. Give an assessment of the issue of financing and managing cultural
resources on watching the public's help, financial and academic;
3. Discuss how public aid has influenced the selection of exhibits, sale
items, the fee structure or operations;
4. Examine the impact of public support for resource development and
cultural activities and,
5. Determine critical ethical dilemmas introduced in art markets and
cultural resources in attempting to overcome the inefficiency and lack
of market. In selecting and describing a problem, students will
demonstrate their ability to (a) analyzing and determining the public
policy for arts and cultural heritage, and (b) communicating their
analysis in clear and precise.
There will be no text book for this course. A diverse selection of book
chapters and journal articles, with mandatory and optional readings,
will drastically enhance the student’s perception of how cultural
tangible and intangible heritage is managed in Latin America. We will
address general issues, historical trajectories and legislation in the
first part. The second part will concentrate on case studies, both of
single projects or multidisciplinary long-term projects in the region.