APPENDIX G

PAROTANI-CAPINOTA SURVEY AREA SITE DESCRIPTIONS

SITE CP-1 HUAYCHA LOMA (N54600 E82900)
Huaycha Loma is located on the lower slopes of the west bank piedmont in an area with dispersed vegetation affected by a seasonal water runoffs. It is divided from Site 2 by the road that runs north to south of the Capinota-Parotani Valley. There is no evidence of ceramic presence on surface in the area that separates both sites in order to consider them a single settlement. There is no surface evidence of architecture.


SITE CP-2 SARIRI LOMA (N54750 E82500)
Sariri Loma is located on the top of a long hill on the edge of the western bank of the Rocha River. River erosion has cut the hill forming a high cliff, destroying a portion of the site. Ceramic evidence is scattered uniformly on the hilltop. The site presents two main sectors. On the flat northern tip of the site looting evidence shows the presence of slab tombs and looted sherds. On the southern zone, on the slope and on the higher zone of the hill, stone alignments as wall foundations suggest the existence of domestic structures.

SITE CP-3 TANSA LOMA (N51300 E89600)
This site is located on a hilltop on the eastern bank of the valley at the confluence of the Rocha River and a north-south gorge that leads to the Santivañez Valley. The settlement is dispersed on the long flat area of the lower slopes. There is no major erosion processes affecting the area of occupation. There is dense presence of wall foundations of domestic structures is dispersed on the settlement area, with surface clusters of sherds associated to those circular and rectangular structures. Looting in the interior of these structures is common.

SITE CP-4 TARISA LOMA (N49850 E90850)
SITE CP-49 TARISA 2 (N49500 E91250)

Sites 4 and 49 are located on a hilly area on the eastern bank of the Rocha River. The first site is located on the riverside hill, whereas the latter site is on an inland hill separated from CP 4 by a creek. A major portion of the CP 4 has been eroded by the river. The Late Period Ciaco occupation is located on the reduced area of the current hilltop. With a low degree of looting the density of sherds is low and of small size. On the northern slope of the hill are stone terraces with 50-60 cm. wide walls located on a steep slope. The close distance between them suggest their use for contention of slope erosion. A higher density of shard evidence, due to erosion, is found in the plowed fields on the relatively flat area north of the hill. However, most of the sherds in the lower zone are of the Colonial period. A small portion of CP 49 was recorded in the survey block. The construction evidence is poor and only a few foundations of stones are found along the flat hilltop settlement. Shard evidence is similar to Site 4, with a low density of small sized sherds.

BALCONCILLO COMPLEX: SITE CP-5 BALCONCILLO (N52850 E86600),
SITE CP-42 BALCONCILLO SUR (N52600 E86800),
SITE CP-47 BALCONCILLO BAJO (N52850 E86530).

These three sites are closely located and are considered as a group. Site CP 5 is located on the top of the Balconcillo hill located on the western edge of the Rocha River. This site has a Late Period Ciaco occupation which lies on the long hilltop running east-west. This site has important architectural evidence such as large circular structures (ca. 3-4 m in diameter) and long and wide stone walls that enclose the hilltop settlement area to the riverfront tip of the hill. This and other sectors of the site have a dense presence of foundation walls of rectangular domestic structures. Looting is important in the area with concentration of the pits on the built structures. An electricity tower has also disturbed an important part of the shallow archaeological deposits. Site 42 is a Tiwanaku burial ground located on the south-east slope of the Balconcillo hill. Domestic constructions in the form of long single stone row terraces and small circular structures on earth leveled platforms are located on the middle slopes of the hill. On the lower slopes, the density of Tiwanaku fine ware sherds, large sized sherds from urns, and the stone slabs are an indication of the burial use of the site. A high disturbance of burials was caused by an irrigation canal and cultivation. Site 47 is located on the north-east lower slopes of the Balconcillo hill closer to the river. The site has a Formative Period occupation. No architectural remains where found beside a few terraces built on the lower slopes of the hill, located at about 100 m from the river area. The dense presence of sherds, product of water erosion disturbance, indicate a dense settlement.

SITE CP-6 MAYTA PAMPA (N54850 E86320)
This site is located on an east bank low hill with no major evidence of erosion of the prehistoric occupation area, but heavy plowing disturbance on Mr. Mayta's fields. No architectural remains were found in this area. As in other cases with agricultural fields, stones have been removed and dispersed leaving no evidence of prehistoric constructions in the field.

SITE CP-7 JAQUERI ALTO (N51560 E83950)
This is a burial site of the Intermediate Period found in a agricultural field in a very isolated location. Two small concentrations of Tiwanaku-style sherds and slab stones were found on surface. The small size of the shard concentrations and the fact that a larger area was plowed, suggest that only a few burials were located in this area.

SITE CP-8 TANQUE CHARA MOKHO (N51820 E87330)
This site is located on a west bank hilltop in the middle of the alluvial plain. The ceramic evidence on surface is product of the leveling of the area for a water tank construction, and water erosion dispersed sherds on the slopes. No stone constructions were recorded on the restricted area of the hilltop.

SITE CP-9 CHARA MOKHO ALTO (N52150 E87120)
This site is located north of Site 8, on another hill on the same alluvial plain. Occupation occurs in three concentrations: on the riverside lower and flat slopes with are currently cultivated; on the flat and long hilltop; and on the southwestern lower slope on another cultivated area. The two occupation areas located on the lower slopes of the hill present a multi-component occupation; the hilltop area presents a predominance of Late Period Ciaco occupation, and presence of altiplano Pacajes sherds. There is no construction evidence on the lower settlements, whereas the hilltop settlement has remains of architectural evidence of foundation walls of rectangular structures.

SITE CP-10 TEMPLO CHARA MOKHO (N50820 E88100)
This is the only Tiwanaku-style mound in the survey area and is located on the flat alluvial plain of the west bank. The mound is occupied today by the new church, a cement playground, the school and the small old church in ruins. The playground has leveled a portion of the mound that had originally a height of approximately 150-250 cm. Many archeological artifacts were disturbed when building the foundations of the new church. The two churches and the school lie on the original surface of the mound. It is probable that undisturbed deposits are still intact. This mound is unique for its location, and its the potential architectural interest. This type of Tiwanaku-style mound has, in other regions of the South-Central Andes, a sunken court.

SITE CP-11 PIRQUE ALTO (N55270 E80350)
This important Tiwanaku-style occupation site lies on the low gradient sloped top of a mesa-like hill overlooking, to the north, the Tapacarí River. The edge of this meseta adjacent to the riverbed has been strongly eroded suggesting a larger original area for the site. Access to the site is made though a narrow strip of land from the south of the meseta flanked by deep eroded quebradas which may been erosions after the Tiwanaku-style occupation, suggesting that the original access to site was not as strategic as it seems today. The site is currently used for dry-farming agriculture. The lot collections were obtained from the plowed central area and from the northern tip of the meseta with dispersed vegetation and looting evidence. The current fields are bound by stones piles and dry walls made with the original prehistoric constructions. An electricity tower on the upper slope of the meseta hill also caused disturbance of the cultural deposits. The site has two or three major platform structures adapted to the low gradient slope of the meseta, but no evidence of stones for the retention walls have been found.

SITE CP-12 PIRQUE BAJO (N55050 E88510)
This site is located northeast of CP-11, on the same lower slopes of the southern bank of the Tapacari River, 300 m. from the river. It consists of a dense Formative Period occupation composed by a high density of sherds and very high number of slab stones and grinding stones on surface result of very dense looting. The architectural evidence consists in platform constructions with the foundation of circular structures on them.

SITE CP-13 CHANCA BAJO (N52800 E90600)
This site lies on the slopes of two facing hills in the gorge leading to the Santivañez Valley. It is an extremely dense and large Formative period occupation site although other later traditions, such as Tupuraya, are also found. The site is cut by the road on which sides lie a high density of disturbed materials. Architectural evidence has been recorded on both slopes and consists of small low-walled terraces with small circular stone structures on them. The existence of polished stones artifacts such as manos and batanes correlates with the assemblages found in sites of the Formative Period.

SITE CP-14 CARA LOMA (N53320 E90580)
This site located on top of a narrow and small hilltop densely covered by spinous vegetation. No ceramics are found on surface. The density of stone structures is high with large and small circular structures on low terraces.

SITE CP-15 CHAQUIRI (N59760 E74600)
This site is located on the Northwestern corner of the survey area on the northern bank of the Tapacari River. It lies on top of a high ridge, 200-250 m from the valley floor. The site spreads N-S following the ridge up to the summit of the range. There are foundation walls of rectangular and circular structures on terraces. Surrounding flat areas of the site have stone alignments structures for cultivation purposes.

SITE CP-16 CEMENTERIO PAROTANI (N56400 E82250)
This is the only site in the survey area published (Ponce Sangines 1972). It is located on an a large isolated hill on the alluvial plain. It is used today as Parotani's cemetery which has extensively disturbed the site. No major building evidence is found on top of the hill. Shard density is high over the area. Stone constructions, mostly short terracing walls, are evident on the eastern slope of the hill that has been mostly undisturbed.

SITE CP-17 ACER COLLU (N57150 E82850)
This site is located across the river from Site 16 on long rocky hill amidst the alluvial plain on the eastern bank of the Rocha River. It consists of four occupation clusters in the high vegetation slopes overlooking the river. Each of these clusters has 5-9 structures, with no evidence of occupation between the clusters. Shard density is very low in each of these clusters; a large portion of them are found on the nearby plowed fields. The stone constructions consist in rectangular and circular structures and medium size enclosures. Terrace structures are found in the clusters located on the steeper slopes.

SITE CP-18 PUCARA CALICANTO (N49740 E89200)
This site is located on a hill protruding from the piedmont towards the Rocha River on the western bank of the valley. The occupation area is located on the eastern tip of the hill overlooking the river plain. The site is bounded by three large retention walls on the upper slopes of the hill. A large circular structure of which the foundation walls and two additional rows are preserved dominate the center of the site. Other smaller structures with foundation walls are dispersed around this major structure. Stones are piled-up on most of the structures.

SITE CP-19 CHOCO PAMPA (N49830 E87700)
This site was recorded on a small natural mound located on a dry farming agricultural area well in the piedmont zone. Only sherds on surface and on the slopes were recorded, with no evidence of stone constructions.

SITE CP-20 SOLTERITO (N56100 E80630)
This site is located on the eastern slope and top of a small hill lying on the alluvial plain of the Tapacari River. A handful of sherds were found on the small hilltop. A low density of sherds are found in a plowed field on the lower slopes of the hill. No evidence of stone buildings are found.

SITE CP-21 LA MERCED (N56150 E81200)
This large site is located on the higher slopes of the north bank range of the Tapacari River adjacent to the riverbed. The density of sherds on surface is low. Foundation walls and a few stone rows of circular and rectangular structures are numerous in this site. The slopes of the site are terraced for the structures.

SITE CP-22 ORNUNI ALTO (N59150 E56770)
This and the following two sites are located on the northern bank of the Tapacari River at an elevation of about 150-250 m above the alluvial plain and accessed through very steep slopes. The sites are located on large flat areas on the upper slopes of the mountain zone. CP 22 is composed of approximately 15 to 20 stone structures among which is found a large circular enclosure, of apparently recent construction with prehistoric stones. Since it is located on a flat area there are no terraces but platforms to support circular and rectangular structures. Walls stand in two to three stone rows above the foundation walls.

SITE CP-23 PALAMANI 1 (N58530 E77260)
SITE CP-24 PALAMANI 2 (N58740 E77470)

These two sites are small clusters of about seven to ten stone structures, that include circular buildings and large rectangular structures. These two concentrations are located apart but on the same elevation at both extremes of the plain that is today cultivated with dry-farming agriculture.

SITE CP-25 KALLANKA (N57850 E79850)
This site is located northwest of Parotani on the summit of an inland mountain range. It is composed of rectangular structures and long stone terraces on the slopes. Another feature is a cluster of rocks enclosing a polished square rock with a small circular pit in the middle, as a shrine. East of this complex on a neighbor summit and out of this survey block are three large rectangular enclosures with 4 to 5 stone row walls. No pottery is found on surface, but the site has been affiliated with the Inka occupation, with a shrine.

SITE CP-26 ORNUNI SUR (N57650 E76800)
This site is located on the southern bank of the Tapacari River and presents one of the most extensive stone construction clusters in the survey. No sherds were found on surface. It is composed of circular and rectangular buildings occur along with a terracing system for about 200 m up the hill. Some terraces are narrow and long follow the slope contours. Other terraces are wide allowing large flat areas suitable for cultivation -that are used today for dry farming agriculture.

SITE CP-27 CARA SAPIRI BAJO (N55050 E85550)
This site was recorded on a small flat hilltop located on the narrow alluvial plain of Rocha's River east bank. There are small circular and rectangular stone structures on terrace platforms of which only the foundation walls and the first stone rows are preserved. No terrace structures were recorded on the slopes.

SITE CP-28 BANDERANI BAJO (N49230 E91670)
This is a Formative site located on the lower slopes of the survey's eastern range. The site lies on a hill adjacent to the alluvial plain. The site has a high density of sherds. There are a few architectural structures that consist in small retention walls for platforms to have small building structures.

SITE CP-29 BANDERANI SUR (N48600 E91850)
This site is located 800 m south of CP-28. It is also a Formative period site located in the same position with respect to the alluvial plain. Again, this sites has a very dense distribution of sherds on surface. There is evidence of stone structures, particularly stone alignments following the slope.

SITE CP-30 LINCO PAMPA (N48300 E87700)
This site is located well inland on the Rocha's west bank and consists of a settlement on a small low hill. It is an area where dry-farming agriculture is practiced. No remains of structures were found.

SITE CP-31 INCALLACTA BAJO (N44210 E92100)
SITE CP-37 INCALLACTA (N44200 E92300)
Site CP-31 lies on the eastern slope of a long high ridge, whereas Site 37 is settled along the long hilltop. Site 31 is located closer to the flat land area with rich alluvial soils. No building structures where found besides the wall foundations of three rectangular structures. Site 37 located on the hilltop stretches along the 600 m of the hilltop with a very dense settlement. There are very well preserved foundation walls of circular and rectangular structures. The slopes have no retention walls. Some of the structures stand above rectangular platforms.

SITE CP-32 LAKOSA BAJO (N42050 E91750)
This site is located on an east-west ridge of the eastern range of the survey area. The site spreads uphill 20 m. from the edge of the natural platform adjacent to the river. No evidence of ceramics was found on the dry farming fields on the lower slopes. There is very few stone structures left and only foundation walls of some terraces on the upper slopes.

SITE CP-33 TUNASANI (N46600 E91400)
This site is located on a mountain range that divides the northern west bank alluvial plain from the Capinota plain. The site has little ceramics on surface. It has, however, a good preservation of dense stone architecture: low platforms, terraces, circular and rectangular small structures.

SITE CP-34 COCA MARCA (N47980 E88720)
This site is located inland on the upper piedmont zone. It consists of a group of three undisturbed burials that were evidenced by the slab stones on surface. No habitation areas were found nearby. The burials were left untouched.

SITE CP-35 JARACOCHI PAMPA (N41910 E88680)
This is an isolated site located western side of the Buen Retiro-Capinota plain. It sits on a long rocky hill with a dense forest of spinous trees. It lies at about 900 m west from current irrigated fields. The site has no ceramics on surface. The stone structures are numerous and well preserved although the constructions use the natural rock that forms the hill to build the structures.

SITE CP-36 PUCARA BAJO (N39800 E88850)
This site is located in the upper piedmont area on the back of the Cerro Pucara in a gorge-like setting that connects with the southern part of the valley and the Arque River. Sherds on surface are extremely scarce. The site two main clusters are located on a flat area that has been cut in the middle by the railway. The southern area is composed by small rectangular and round stone structures in lineal disposition following the slope contour line. The northern area of the site is composed by large rectangular walled enclosures interspersed with open courts, smaller rectangular constructions and large circular buildings adjacent to the larger buildings. The wide wall structures preserve the foundation stones, and an average of two to three stone rows of standing walls.

SITE CP-37: see SITE CP-31.

SITE CP-38 CONCHU PATA (N48200 E91280)
This site is located on a hill adjacent to the Rocha's east bank riverbed and has also suffered erosion on its western side having then probably lost part of the occupation area. There is a low density of ceramic on surface. It is covered by a very dense spinous vegetation covering the site features. However, foundation walls for circular and rectangular structures could be recorded.

CHACO PATA COMPLEX: SITE CP-39 CHACO PATA 1 (N45000 E92750)
SITE CP-40 CHACO PATA 2 (N45730 E93250)
SITE CP-41 CHACO PATA 3 (N45720 E92700)
These three sites are located on the large flat summits of a group of low hills overlooking the alluvial area on the Rocha's east bank. The most remarkable feature of these settlements is the extensive flat area that lies near Site 40. About 4-5 Ha of perfectly flat land is today cultivated with dry farming techniques and would have made in the past an ideal area for agriculture with no need of terracing infrastructure. The habitation area of Site 40 lies along the plateau's northern rim clearly reserving the flat land for cultivation purposes. Architectural evidence is numerous but consists mostly of wall foundations of small circular structures in case of Site 40, and with larger circular and rectangular structures in Sites 39 and 41. A denser vegetation in Site 41 has held the preservation of the architecture.

SITE CP-42: see SITE CP-5.

SITE CP-43 PUCARA CAPINOTA (N39000 E89800)
This site is located on the top of Cerro Pucara. The use of a shrine on top of the hill has been flattened a portion of the archaeological site. The main prehistoric occupation of the site lies on the central area of the summit and is located along its eastern side overlooking the alluvial area. The preservation of the dense site structures is correlated with the high vegetation in the area. The structures consist mainly large circular structures built on stone platforms.

SITE CP-44 ASUTRINI (N37250 E89125)
This site is located on the eastern slope of a hill adjacent to the Arque River. The occupation is concentrated on the middle slopes of the fill. It is a multi-component site that preserves foundation walls of terrace-like constructions in a very large area. Looting is not extensive. This site has the clearest Tupuraya and Tiwanaku occupation combination.

SITE CP-45 CERRO CACHA (N38850 E92820)
This site lies on the narrow hilltop of high mountain range located at the confluence of the Arque and Rocha rivers, 140 m above the valley floor. There is a natural access to the site by the eastern side of the mountain. The western side is inaccessible. The habitation areas are located at different levels of the mountain. The upper settlement on the hilltop is a dense settlement with good preservation of small and medium sized rectangular and circular structures. A large part of this upper area has been eroded. A similar concentration of domestic structures is found mid-way down the mountain. Finally, two large concentrations are found on the lower slopes (these clusters were out of the survey blocks). The natural access to the middle and upper sites is through either of these two sites. Ceramic evidence on surface indicates a single episode of occupation of the three settlement clusters.

SITE CP-46 MURU ORCO BAJO (N55250 E79820)
This site is located 120 m. up the mountain range on the south side of the Tapacari River. The first slopes of the range are extremely steep but the site is located on less abrupt slopes in higher areas. This site has extensive terracing constructions. These are relatively narrow structures (4-6 m. wide), with little evidence of other buildings such as circular or rectangular structures built on them. No sherds on surface were found.

SITE CP-47: see SITE CP-5.

SITE CP-48 CAPILLA ITAPAYA (N52950 E85950)
This site is located north of the Balconcillo complex (Sites CP 5, 42 and 47) on a lower piedmont slope over looking the alluvial plain. The area is currently plowed for dry farming agriculture and no stone structures were recorded. The most relevant feature of this site was the metal artifacts (3 items) found on surface.

SITE CP-49: see SITE CP-4.

End of appendix G